Developmental milestones

Developmental milestones

 

Periods of growth

Prenatal period –

Ovum – 0-14 days

Embryo – 14 days to 9 weeks

Fetus – 9 weeks to birth

Perinatal period – 22 weeks to 7 days after birth

Postnatal period –

Newborn – first 4 week after birth

Infancy – first year

Toddler – 1-3 yr

Preschool – 3-6 yr

School age – 6-12 yr

Adolescence –

Early – 10-13 yr

Middle – 14-16 yr

Late – 17-20 yr

 

 

Approximate anthropometric values by age

Age Weight (kg) Length or height (cm) Head circumference (cm)
Birth 3 50 34
6 m 6 (doubles) 65 43
1 year 9 (triples) 75 46
2 yr 12 (quadruples) 90 48
3 yr 15 95 49
4 years 16 100 50

 

Key Gross Motor developmental milestone

Age Milestones
3 m Neck holding
5 m Rolls over
6 m Sits in tripod fashion (sitting with own support)
8 m Sitting without support
9 m Stands holding on (with support)
12 m Creeps well; walks but fails; stands without support
15 m Walks alone; creeps upstairs
18 m Runs; explores drawers
2 yr Walks up and downstairs (2 feet/step); jumps
3 yr Rides tricycle; alternate feet going upstairs
4 yr Holds on one foot; alternate feet going downstairs

 

 

Key Fine Motor developmental milestone

Age Milestones
4 month Bidextrous reach (reaching out for objects with both hands)
6 month Unidextrous reach (reaching out for objects with one hand); transfers objects
9 month Immature pincer grasp, probes with forefinger
12 m Pincer grasp mature
15 m Imitates scribbling, makes tower of 2 blocks
18 m Scribbles, makes tower of 3 blocks
2 yr Tower of 6 blocks, vertical and circular strokes
3 yr Tower of 9 blocks, copies circle
4 yr Copies cross, bridge with blocks
5 yr Copies triangle, gate with blocks

 

 

 

Key Social and Adaptive Milestones

Age Milestone
2 m Social smile (smile after being talked to)
3 m Recongnizes mother; anticipates feeds
6 m Recognizes strangers; stranger anxiety
9 m Waves “bye-bye”
12 m Comes when called, plays simple ball game
15 m Jargon
18 m Copies parents in task (eg sweeping)
2 yr Asks for food, drink, toilet, pulls people to show toys
3 yr Shares toys, knows full name and gender
4 yr Plays co-operatively in a group; goes to toilet alone
5 yr Helps in household tasks, dresses and undresses

 

 

 

Key Language milestones

Age Milestone
1 m Alert to sound
3 m Cooing (musical vowel sounds)
4 m Laughs loud
6 m Monosyllables (ba, da, pa); ah-goo sounds
9 m Bisyllables (mama, baba, dada)
12 m 1-2 words with meaning
18 m 8-10 word vocabulary
2 yr 2-3 word sentences, uses pronous (I, me , you)
3 yr Asks questions, knows full name and gender
4 yr Says song or poem; tells stories
5 yr Asks meaning of words

 

 

Upper age limit for attainment of milestone

Milestone Age
Visual fixation or following 2 m
Vocalization 6 m
Sitting without support 10 m
Standing with assistance 12 m
Hands and knee crawling 14 m
Standing alone 17 m
Walking alone 18 m
Single word 18 m
Imaginative play 3 yr

 

 

Timing of Dentition

Primary dentition Time of eruption , months Time of fall, years
  Upper Lower Upper Lower
Central incisors 8-12 m 6-10 m 6-7 yr 6-7 yr
Lateral incisors 9-13 m 10-16 m 7-8 yr 7-8 yr
First molar 13-19 m 14-18 m 9-11 yr 9-11 yr
Canine 16-22 m 17-23 m 10-12 yr 9-12 yr
Second molar 25-33 m 23-31 m 10-12 yr 10-12 yr
Permanent teeth Time of eruption (in years)
  Upper Lower  
First molar 6-7 6-7  
Central incisor 7-8 6-7  
Lateral incisor 8-9 7-8  
Canine 11-12 10-12  
First premolar 10-11 10-12  
Second premolar 10-12 10-12  
Second molar 12-13 11-13  
Third molar 17-21 17-21  

 

Further reading – Essential pediatrics, 8th edition

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